The industrial revolution has brought out major changes in the textile industry as well just like any other industry. Spinning is just the initial step in the cotton industry to convert fiber into yarns. Spinning was done by people manually for a couple of decades. With the Industrial revolution, with the advancement in technology, the whole process of transformation of fiber into yarns become easy & time-saving. The basic stages in spinning are:
- Blow room process: This is the first & foremost stage in spinning. As the name indicates, the blow room refers to the room with airflow & numerous machinery that transforms a cluster of cotton into a single piece of yarn. Basic operations in blow room processing are:
2) Cleaning: This is the process of removing dust & waste from the fiber. At this stage, cleaning efficiency plays an important role as a high volume of trash removal will have a negative impact on the quality of fiber & it may result in huge fiber loss as well.
3) Mixing/blending: Putting together various grades of fibers is called blending. Combining. various classes of fibers of the same grade is known as mixing. This process helps to optimize the homogeneity of the mixture by combining different bales.
4) Lap forming: It is the process of transforming opened & cleaned fibers into a sheet form with a definite width and uniform length.
- Carding: After lap formation, half-made yarn will be fed into carding machine All major functions of spinning are carried out during carding. So this process considered the heart of spinning. The major functions including processed bales opening to single fiber, removal of leftover impurities, and separating the short fiber will be completed here.
Combining Process: The third stage of the spinning process focuses on improving the quality of fiber obtained after carding. Uniform silver (a long bundle of yarn used to spin yarn) will be developed during this stage.
· Drawing: The carded silver obtained after the combining process will be uneven, this cannot be further processed smoothly in yarn production. So in this stage, the drawing process, involves the removal of the unevenness of fiber pointing to short, medium & long ones. Maintaining blend proportion is very important for further processing of yarn, which is conducted during this stage.
· Roving: Rovings are a long bundle of fiber, which is produced in the process of making spun yarn. In this process, the spun yarn converted into small packages known as bobbins.
· Cone winding: The final stage in the spinning process which makes ready the final yarn that can be supplied to the final consumer. This is a process of making cone packages that can be used by textiles for further production.